Traditional command and control structured organizations are often not effectively designed for allowing leaders to adequately promote value delivery. Traditional organizational structures are also not fruitful at turning managers in to effective leaders. Neither are they designed at empowering their workforce, rather they tend to focus on hierarchical decision making which promotes a command and control mentality.
Value or value creation can be viewed in multiple ways. The customer must value your product or service and be willing to pay for it, it must change the product or service, and must be done right the first time. Many frameworks do a great job focusing on these three areas. Although frameworks are great tools at enabling value delivery they can only be utilized if the culture and environment fosters and promote value delivery at every level in the firm, including the individual. Using Pareto’s law we can deduct that tools/frameworks only represent 20% of the ability to deliver optimal customer value while leadership empowerment and support comprises the additional 80%. In successful value focused firms 80% of the effort is expended on changing leaders' practices and behaviors and ultimately their mind set. Senior management has an essential role in establishing conditions that enable the effort to succeed. Their involvement includes establishing governance arrangements that cross divisional boundaries, supporting a thorough, long-term vision of the organization's value-producing processes, and holding everyone accountable for meeting value driven commitments. This is accomplished through regular, direct involvement and understanding their role in empowering their employees (who should be considered your intellectual capital). Without this vision any value driven initiative (Lean, Six sigma, Theory of Constraints, agile) will only be seen as the flavor of the month.
Asking yourself “is your customer willing to pay for the activity you are engaged in” can provide tremendous insight when leading. Defining value in any other terms can undermine the potential of value delivery for the firm. Leadership often takes too much credit in the value of the organization when they often have created little direct value. The majority of the value delivered is through the product, services or placement of your firm’s competitive advantage. This means your greatest potential for value creation often resides in the employees who produce your competitive advantage. Historically to gain the ranks of manager one had to experience, learn and work in multiple domains of the organization. Rising the ladder through the learning curve of the organizational layers. This allowed managers to gain knowledge and experience which could be used to effectively lead and make intelligent decisions. Today management still rises through the ranks but often they lack the domain knowledge they would have previously gained. Rapid Technology changes make it difficult for management to have the same depth of knowledge as those they manage. The pace of change today has created a model where leadership is in stark departure from leadership over the last century. Traditionally organizational structure evolved as a product starting with the industrial revolution with influence from military modelling. A command and control model focuses on management making strategic and tactical decisions for their employees to follow without question. This method worked fairly well in highly controlled production environments which had little variability in their process.
Peter Drucker (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peter_Drucker) the father of Management predicted then observed a shift in the early 60's which indicated successful firms were putting more decision in the domain of their employees who work with the product. Product complexity and efficiency were creating an environment where production lines where much more complicated and variable and couldn’t be supported by command and control. With the emergence of service based industries it quickly became apparent that traditional management methods were out dated (although this had become equally apparent in manufacturing earlier). Successful organizations today understand the majority of tacit knowledge with tremendous potential resides in the knowledge worker. This is the same worker who under earlier models lacked decision making authority and operated as order takers.
What is the primary role of a leader today then? This question is asked far too infrequently, and when it is asked, the answers are predictable and often wrong. But it is a vital question, as without leadership, empowered employees will never get off the ground. Common replies include setting the vision, establishing priorities, and providing motivation. These are important responsibilities which are out dated. The essential purpose of a leader is to do one thing: create and empower change. Without a good leader, nothing changes. If a lean program, or any other program for that matter, is failing, it is probably not the fault of the tools. It is failing because of lousy leadership. As you embark on your journey, learn all you can about the concepts, practices, principles, and tools of your choosing. But remember, above all, the goal of these tools is value – and value hinges on leadership who promote and empower that change.
The knowledge workers need to be in control of achieving and promoting change. Therefore, the leader must convey to the worker that they are the ones who own the processes. Leaders need to empower people to have everything in place in order to perform. Only when they know and are empowered what to do will they feel accountable and take ownership of the processes. In organizations with traditional leadership behavior, there are frequently policy deployment directions from senior management. The mindset of these leaders is not to involve the people at all. Therefore, people can’t relate to the KPIs (Key Performance Indicator) that cascade down because they can’t understand their contribution or the relevance of the KPIs. People in these companies can’t engage themselves in supporting their senior management in delivering results. Consequently any initiative which does not empower or utilize the input of the employee is more likely to fail.
Leaders must focus on commitment to endlessly invest in people and promote a culture of continuous improvement. There is no destination for value delivery models, there's only the journey. As a leader you should never consider your “Lean” or “Agile” program as complete. Once you make this mistake you start down the path of contentment and will lose focus on empowering continuous change. If leaders provide a full and continuous investment in their employees then they will in turn see dedication. All too often when talking to senior management about learning and multi-skilling of employees, they tell us they worry about efficiency. Learning take times which reduces what can be delivered to the customer. Therefore, the view is that it is more efficient to have the specialist work on the specialist things (there are times and places for specialists but that’s for another paper). This might make sense from a traditionalist, but from a product-development-as-knowledge-creation perspective, this kind of thinking is plain wrong and even dangerous. Learning is the major value added activity in product development and knowledge transfer. In the long run, reducing learning will only result in loss in market share and a less valuable staff. Often management use the excuse that they have to assign resources to satisfy the customer first, which leaves them little or no time to make real change. Their bosses find it hard to argue the point (or use it as a convenient excuse themselves). Value based culture requires you to make the time to make the change—long-term planning and results versus short-term results with little planning.
All leaders have the ability to adapt to the new value driven leadership mind-set. However, not everyone will be capable of doing it without intensive coaching and support from their own leader or experienced external coaches. Even though initially some of these leaders will not feel comfortable in being a leader in this new system, not many of them leave or are forced to leave because, over time, most will understand the value and adapt to the new leadership system.
Not every leader nor every company culture is ready for this change in leadership mindset. Despite this, many companies have implemented value based tools and techniques for years with tremendous success (Toyota, Boeing, GE) . For example using a lean framework, Center for Ledelse interviewed 400+ companies concluding that only 7% had realized more than 80% of their expectation in their Lean program. This only confirms that these companies need to take action now in adapting Lean leadership behaviour and mindset in to their company culture. Every leader deserves a chance, but remember you will have to fight a lot of scepticism down that road (insert reference). You will likely need to convince the team members by showing them what is in it for them personally. People will change when they realize that their leaders really want to empower them. Leaders need to be consistent in what they ask for. They should not reduce their requirements. They should not change their communication. Consistency it required and we must accept the fact that it takes time sometimes many years for this change to fully reflect in the culture.
Dedication is required of each team member to strive for self-improvement. Commitment is needed for each team member to ensure the values and principles will be followed and the team will hold itself accountable. Courage, because the emotions that empowerment invites, will be unlike anything the employee has ever professionally experienced. Avoid non-dedicated team members or “partial allocation.” A team member who is in multiple teams does not have the same commitment and shared responsibility as the other members. Part-time people equate to part-time commitment. Part-time commitment leads to team failure. To the maximum amount possible, all members are 100 percent allocated—fully dedicated to their team. The amount of management waste that disappears is amazing.
What you do from this point forward is exciting. The possibilities for your firm are endless. There are many sceptics who think value based programs cannot work for them. They are right, if they keep that mind-set then it can’t. There is no doubt the concepts presented in this paper can work for you. From the world’s largest auto maker to the smallest organization you can make this work. It can work for you, your vendors and even your customers. Take the time to explore your leadership potential and realize that anything is possible.